Ricardo Martínez

CRONOLOGY

1918
• Ricardo Martinez was born on 28th October in Mexico City. He was the thirteenth of sixteen children of Nestor Martinez and Elena de Hoyos, who both came from the North of Mexico.
• Among his siblings there were other artists: Oliverio, a talented sculptor who died young, who was a strong influence on Ricardo; Enrico and Homero were architects; Jorge became a well-known actor.

1925
• Alberto Correa, primary school.

1928
• Travels with part of his family to the USA, where they remain for several years. His mother’s was one of the founding families of San Antonio in Texas and she still had relatives there. The family stayed four years. Ricardo and his siblings become fully bilingual.

1932
• Return to Mexico, where Ricardo finishes primary school.

1934-1935
• Ricardo visits his brother Oliverio at the building site of the Monument dedicated to the Mexican Revolution. There he meets the sculptor Francisco Zuñiga, with whom he shall have a long friendship.

1935
• Orientacion, Secondary school.

1938
• Escuela Nacional Preparatoria, High School.

1939
• Takes part in the foundation of a group called Amigos de la Conservacion de los Frescos de Jose Clemente Orozco at Escuela Nacional Preparatoria and in a manifesto calling for students and the authorities to protect the paintings from vandalism (at that building the Muralistic Movement began).
• Completes his first work in tempera.
• Meets and makes friends with the poet Ruben Bonifaz Nuño.

1940
• Begins law studies at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). A few months later he decides to devote himself full time to painting. He joins the San Carlos Art Academy but, not satisfied with the teaching methods, makes up his mind to work on his own and learn through extensive reading, including Max Doerner’s The materials of the artist, which revealed the secrets of the old masters.
• He sets up an atelier in the family home in Mexico City. His first works were still lifes, landscapes, common characters and portraits, all these within the nationalistic movement of the times, apart from a few attempts at surrealism.

1942
• Meets Zarina Lacy at the Faculty of Philosophy and Literature of the National Autonomous University of Mexico.
• At that time he meets and makes friends for life with Ali Chumacero, Joaquin Diez-Canedo, Jorge Gonzalez Duran, Jose Luis Martinez, Juan Rulfo, Fernando Benitez, Luis Cardoza y Aragon, Octavio Paz, Juan Jose Arreola; and the painters Juan Soriano, Carlos Merida, Federico Cantu, Luis Garcia Guerrero, Fernando Ramos Prida, Vicente Rojo, Jose Luis Cuevas and Guillermo Meza.

1943
• Moves to a new atelier in the Anzures neighborhood in Mexico City. His neighbor, friend and fellow artist, Federico Cantu, teaches him engraving techniques and introduces him to the Mexican Art Gallery in Mexico City, under the management of Ines Amor.

1948
• Visiting lecturer in painting at the Fine Arts Centre School at Colorado Springs and San Diego, CA. Meets and makes friends with French artist Jean Charlot, director of the school.
• While in the Fine Arts Center, designed the stage design and costumes for the ballet Xochipilli of the choreographer Hanya Holm.

1949
• Marries Zarina Lacy.

1952
• He settles his home at Etna Street, South of Mexico City, and begins to build his studio. He will live and work there for the rest of his life.

1953
• Tutors Lucinda Urrusti.

1954
• Starts tutoring Susan Sollins, current Executive Producer and Curator of the Art 21 foundation in New York City, which supports young artists.

1955
• Tutors Gerardo Lopez Bonilla, a seminarian.

1958
• Meets Carl Lunde, director of The Contemporaries Gallery, in New York City.

1959
• Makes friends with Dutch designer Leo Lionni.

1968
• Meets the Russian poet Evgueny Evtushenko. He came to Mexico City for a lecture of his poems. The poet asked to visit Ricardo Martinez at his studio.

1969
• Travels to Europe for the first time and visits England, Holland, Belgium, France, Italy and Spain, which widened his experience of European painting.

1972
• Moves to a new studio at the bottom of his garden, on Etna Street.

2009
• Died on January 11th.

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Solo
exhibitions

1944
• “Oleos, temples y dibujos". Galeria de Arte Mexicano, Mexico City.

1945
• “Ricardo Martinez". Galeria de Arte Mexicano, Mexico City.

1947
• “10 oleos recientes". Galeria de Arte Mexicano, Mexico City.

1948-1949
• Fine Arte Center, Colorado Springs, CO.

1950
• “Ricardo Martínez", Galería de Arte Mexicano, Mexico City.

1951
• “Óleos y sanguinas", Galería de Arte Mexicano, Mexico City.

1952
• “13 óleos recientes", Galería de Arte Mexicano, Mexico City.

1954
• “Óleos de Ricardo Martínez", Galería de Arte Mexicano, Mexico City.

1955
• “Ricardo Martínez", Galería de Arte Mexicano, Mexico City.

1956
• “15 oleos". His work begins to show a monumental style with pre-Hispanic influence. Galeria de Arte Mexicano, Mexico City.

1958
• “Oleos". The paintings in this exhibition display a new style and a personal form of expression that he continues to develop for the rest of his life. Galería de Arte Mexicano, Mexico City.

1959
• “Ricardo Martinez", The Contemporaries, New York City.

1960
• “Martinez. Exhibition of Recent Paintings", The Contemporaries, New York City.

1961
• “Ricardo Martinez, an Exhibition of Recent Paintings", The Contemporaries, New York City.

1964
• “Paintings" – Last solo exhibition at the Galeria de Arte Mexicano. He shall not work with dealers in Mexico again but has direct contact with prospective clients, whom he invites to his atelier.
• “Recent Paintings". The Contemporaries, New York City.

1966
• “Ricardo Martinez. Recent Paintings", Phoenix Art Museum, Phoenix, AZ.

1969
• “Pinturas de Ricardo Martinez”. Museo de Arte Moderno, Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes (INBA), Mexico City.

1974
• “Ricardo Martinez. 40 pinturas. Expansion ritmica de los volumenes". Museo de Arte Moderno, INBA, Mexico City.

1976
• The Sindin Gallery, New York City.

1984
• “Ricardo Martínez. Obra reciente, 1975-1984", Museo del Palacio de Bellas Artes, INBA, Ciudad de México.

1994
• “Ricardo Martinez. Obra reciente, 1975-1984". Museo del Palacio de Bellas Artes, INBA, Mexico City.

2000
• “Ricardo Martinez. Energia y monumentalidad". Club de Banqueros de Mexico, Mexico City.

2011
• “Ricardo Martínez", Museo de la Ciudad de México, Mexico City.

Exhibitions

1942
• Arte mexicano contemporaneo". Organized by Maria Asunsolo, in the Galeria de Arte Maria Asunsolo, Guadalajara, Mexico.
• “Arte mexicano contemporaneo". University Club of Mexico, Mexico City.

1943
• “Mexican Art Today". Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA.
• “The Twenty-Second International Exhibition of Watercolors". The Art Institute of Chicago, IL.

1944
• “The Fifty-fifth Annual American Exhibition of Watercolors and Drawing”. The Art Institute of Chicago, IL.
• “Modern Mexican Artists”. The Whyte Gallery, Washington.

1945
• “Pintura mexicana moderna, 1900-1945”. Guanajuato, Mexico.
• “Mexican Painting”. Knoedler Galleries, New York City.
• “Salon de Pintura 1945”. Galeria de Arte Mexicano.

1946
• “Pinturas, esculturas, grabados y dibujos”. Museo del Palacio de Bellas Artes, Mexico City.
• “From Market Place to Museum, Exhibition of Mexican Art”. Grand Central Art Galleries, New York City.
• “Quinta exposición Nacional de Floricultura. IV Salon de las Flores”. Dirección General de Agricultura, Mexico.

1947
• “Paintings and Drawings of Latin America”. Knoedler Galleries, New York City.

1948
• Academy, Guatemala.
• “Mexican painting”. Industrial Fair, Toronto.

1950
• “La Fiesta de la Flor y la exposición de pinturas alusivas". Galerias Excelsior, Mexico City.
• “Exposicion de grabados y pintura religiosa moderna mexicana". Clardecor, Mexico City.

1951
• Opening exhibition at the Galeria de Arte Contemporaneo, Mexico City.

1952
• “The 1952 Pittsburgh International Exhibition of Contemporary Painting”. Department of Fine Arts, Carnegie Institute, Washington, D.C. 
• “Masterworks of Mexican Art”. Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, France.
• GalleryLiljevalchs Konsthall, Stockholm, Sweden.

1953
• “Collection Mr. & Mrs. Robert D. Straus. Paintings, Prints, Drawings, Sculpture”. Fort Worth Art Centre, Fort Worth, TX.
• The Tate Gallery, London.

1954
• “Arte mexicano", Edificio “La Crónica", Lima, Perú.

1955
• “The Third International Art Exhibition", Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, TX.

1956
• “Gulf-Caribbean Art Exhibition", Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, TX.

1957
• “The Fourth International Art Exhibition", The Mainichi Newspaper, Tokio, Japan.

1958
• “Pintura mexicana contemporánea". XXIX Biennale in Venice.
• “Twentieth Century Mexican Painting”. Marion Koogler McNay Art Institute, San Antonio, TX.
• “I Bienal Interamericana de Pintura y Grabado". Museo Nacional de Artes Plasticas, INBA, Mexico City.
• “Art Mexicain”. France, different venues.
• “Mexican Art Pre-Columbian to Modern Times”. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

1959
• “Exhibition of Contemporary Mexican Art”. Mexican Art Gallery, San Antonio, TX.
• “Medio siglo de la Escuela Mexicana de Pintura (1910-1969)". Galeria del Centro Deportivo Israelita, Mexico City.
• “Arte mexicano de la época prehispánica a nuestros días". Galeria Chapultepec, INBA, Mexico City.
• “Tres siglos de dibujo en Mexico 1700-1959”. Salon de la Plastica Mexicana, INBA, Mexico City.
• “The United States Collects Pan-American Art”. Art Institute of Chicago, IL.
• “El arte de la vida”. Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City.
• The Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen, Amsterdam, Holland.

1960
• “Obras maestras del arte mexicano”, London, Paris, Copenhagen, Moscow, Leningrad, Warsaw, Tokyo, Rome, Los Angeles (1960-1963). Organized by the Mexican government.

1961
• “Latin American, New Departures", Institute of Contemporary Art Exhibition, Boston, MA.

1962
• “Pintura mexicana del siglo XX", Galería del Centenario, Plaza del Parián, Puebla.
• “Exposición de pintura mexicana", Campeche.
• “Pintura contemporanea de México", Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
• “Pintura y grabado de México", Palacio Municipal de Matamoros, Tamaulipas.

1963
• VII Bienal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brasil.
• “La floresta en la pintura nacional, cincuenta paisajes mexicanos", Museo Nacional de Arte Moderno, INBA, Mexico City.

1964
• “Mother and Child in Modern Art", American Federation of Art, varios recintos (1964-1965), Estados Unidos.
• “A Decade of Contemporary Mexican Artists (1964-1965)", Phoenix Art Museum, Phoenix, AZ.
• “El dibujo mexicano de 1847 a nuestros días", INBA, México.
• “Conmemoracion de los 183 años de vida de la Academia de San Carlos", Academia de San Carlos, UNAM, Mexico City.

1965
• “Nuevas adquisiciones en el Museo de la Universidad de Puerto Rico". Museo de Arte Ponce, Puerto Rico.
• “Mexico, Past and Present”. Birmingham Museum of Art, Birmingham, AL.
• “Latin American Art from Independence to Our Days”. (1965-1967) University of Yale, New Haven, CT.
• “The Emergent Decade, An Exhibition of Contemporary Latin American Painting”. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. & The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York City.

1967
• “Salon de Otoño”. Medical Association of Jalisco, Museum of Modern Art, Guadalajara, Mexico.
• “Cento Anni di Pintura Messicana 1867-1967”. Instituto Italo-Latinoamericano, Rome, Italy.

1968
• “Programa Cultural de la XIX Olimpiada". Galeria de Arte Mexicano, Mexico City.

1975
• “Artistas Contemporaneos Latinoamericanos". Galeria Alexis, San Salvador, El Salvador.
• “La mujer como creadora y tema del arte". Museo de Arte Moderno, INBA, Mexico City.

1976
• “Creadores latinoamericanos contemporaneos 1950-1976. Pinturas y Relieves", Museo de Arte Moderno, INBA, Mexico City.
• The Zocalo-Pino Suarez metro junction, Mexico City.
• “Obra temprana de los grandes maestros". Galeria Pintura Joven, Mexico City.

1977
• The Rubicon Gallery. Los Altos, CA.
• “Homenaje a la pintura latinoamericana”. Sala Nacional de Exposiciones Parque Cuscatlan, San Salvador, El Salvador.

1978
• “The Latin American Art Exhibition”, De Armas Gallery, FL.

1980
• “Imagenes de Mexico”, Palacio de Iturbide, Mexico City.

1982
• “Acervo do MAC USP”, Museo de Arte Contemporaneo Ibirapuera, Universidad de Sao Paulo, Brasil.

1985
• “Mexiko 1900-Talkonst". Liljevakchs Konsthall y Mälmo Konsthall, Estocolmo and Mälmo, Sweden.

1987
• “As Bienais no Acervo do MAC”, Museo de Arte Contemporaneo Ibirapuera, Universidad de Sao Paulo, Brasil.

1989
• “Coleccion Pago en Especie" (Mexican artists may pay their taxes with their own works, sponsored by the Mexican Ministry of Finance and Public Credit). Secretaria de Salud, Mexico City.

1990
• “II Muestra de Pintura y Escultura Latinoamericana" Galeria Espacio, San Salvador, El Salvador.
• “Mexican Masters". Brewster Gallery, NewYork City.

1992
• “Mexican Masters of the Post-muralist Period”. Nevada Museum of Art, E.L. Wiegand Gallery, Belmont, CA.
• “Contrasts". Payment in Kind Collection” Ministry of Finance and Public Credit, Cultural Centre El Nigromante, INBA, San Miguel Allende. Gallery in INEGI, Aguascalientes, Mexico.

1993
• “Transicion y ruptura. 24 artistas mexicanos". EUROPALIA 1993, The Nortman Gallery, Maastricht, Netherlands.
• “Una vision del arte contemporaneo". Payment in Kind Collection. Ministry of Finance and Public Credit, Mexico City.
• “100 pintores mexicanos”, Museo de Arte Contemporáneo, Monterrey, México.
• “Arte Latino-americana em Museus de São Paulo”, Memorial da América Latina-Galeria do Memorial, Sao Paulo, Brasil.

1994
• “Encuentros”, Casa de la Cultura Jesus Reyes Heroles, Mexico City.
• “El hombre y su entorno. Presencias en la plastica mexicana del siglo XX”. Hospicio Cabañas, Guadalajara, Mexico. 

1997
• “Invenciones: obra en papel". Galería A.G. Arte Moderno y Contemporaneo, Mexico City.

2001
• “Soleils mexicains". Petit Palais, Pais, France.
• “34 artistes mexicains, Quand les imports deviennent un regal pour l’espirit". Le Centre Culturel de l’Ambassade du Mexique, Paris, France.
• “Colectiva de invierno". Galeria Lopez Quiroga, Mexico City.

2006
• “Pintura mexicana de la posguerra al fin de siglo", Friends of Shangai Art Museum, Shangai, China.

2008
• “La colección: el peso del realismo", Museo de Arte Moderno, INBA, Mexico City.

2010
• “El maguey. Símbolo de identidad nacional". Museo Casa Estudio Diego Rivera y Frida Kahlo, Mexico City.

2013
• “L’art mexicain 1920-1960. Eloge du corps". La Bellevue, Biarritz, France.

2015
• “La otra fiesta de las balas. Martín Luis Guzmán", Museo de Arte Moderno, INBA, Mexico City.

Publications

1965
• The National Autonomous University of Mexico publishes Ricardo Martinez by Rubén Bonifaz Nuño, Mexico.

1974
• The book Pintura Contemporanea de Mexico by Luis Cardoza y Aragon is published by Ediciones ERA, Mexico, with a chapter on Ricardo Martinez.

1980
• Ricardo Martinez by Ruben Bonifaz Nuño published by Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.

1981
• Joaquin Mortiz, Mexico, publishes the book Ricardo Martinez, with an introduction by Luis Cardoza y Aragon.

1994
• Publication of the book-catalogue Ricardo Martinez by Fondo Editorial Panorama, Mexico.

2001
Ricardo Martinez, de Miguel Ángel Muñoz, Circulo de Lectura, Conaculta, Mexico.

2004
Ricardo Martinez is published by Colection JAPS, Mexico.

Ilustraciones en libros

1918-2011

1945
Epigramas americanos, de Enrique Díez-Canedo, publicada por su hijo Joaquín bajo la rúbrica de Joaquín Mortiz, México.

1945
Segundo despertar y otros poemas, de Enrique González Martínez, Nueva Floresta, México,

1946
• Sueño y poesía / Sleep and poetry, de John Keats, Espiga, México.

1947
• Nueva Revista de Filología Hispánica, Amado Alonso (director), El Colegio de México, México, Año 1, Número 1, 1947. La viñeta de portada continúa publicándose en la revista.

1949
• Junta de sombras, de Alfonso Reyes, Fondo de Cultura Económica, México.

1949
Libertad bajo palabra, de Octavio Paz, Tezontle, México.

1950
Cuentos, de Juan José Arreola, Los Presentes, México.

1950
• Diario histórico de los viages de mar y tierra hechos al norte de la California, de Miguel Constansó, Edición Chimalistac, México.

1950
El retorno, de Ernesto Mejía Sánchez, Los Presentes, México.

1950
Sonetos, de Carlos Pellicer, Los Presentes, México.

1951
Poética, de Rubén Bonifaz Nuño, Los Presentes, México, 1951.

1951
A Enrique González Martínez en sus ochenta años, editado por Joaquín Díez-Canedo y Alí Chumacero, Homenaje, México.

1952
• El nuevo narciso, de Enrique González Martínez, Letras Mexicanas, 3, Fondo de Cultura Económica, México.

1951
Muerte sin fin, de José Gorostiza, Fondo de Cultura Económica, México.

1953
El hermano menor, de Jaime García Terrés, Los Presentes, México.

1953
La jornada hecha. Poesía: 1934-1952, de Francisco Giner de los Ríos, Tezontle, México.

1953
Cuentos, de Augusto Monterroso, Los Presentes, México.

1954
Relatos mexicanos, de Ángel Bassols Batalla, Los Presentes, México, 1954.

• Los días enmascarados, de Carlos Fuentes, Los Presentes, México.

1954
• Parentalia, de Alfonso Reyes, Los Presentes, México.

1955
• El heroísmo intelectual, de José Antonio Portuondo, Tezontle, México.

1955
Pedro Páramo, de Juan Rulfo, Fondo de Cultura Económica, México.

1956
Palabras en reposo, de Alí Chumacero, Fondo de Cultura Económica, México.

1956
Los demonios y los días, de Rubén Bonifaz Nuño, Tezontle, México.

1956
• Las provincias del aire, de Jaime García Terres, Letras Mexicanas, 30, Fondo de Cultura Económica, México.

1958
Poemas mexicanos, de Francisco Giner de los Ríos, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México.

1959
• Una luz en la otra orilla, de María Lombardo de Caso, Letras Mexicanas, 47, Fondo de Cultura Económica, México.

1962
Recuento de poemas, de Jaime Sabines, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México.

1969
• El ala del tigre, de Rubén Bonifaz Nuño, Letras Mexicanas, 93, Fondo de Cultura Económica, México.

1978
La cabeza de la hidra, de Carlos Fuentes, Joaquín Mortiz, México.

1978
• La piedra en el pozo, de Luis Roberto Vera, Ediciones de la Quinta Estación, México.

1980
Recolección a mediodía, de Ernesto Mejía Sánchez, Joaquín Mortiz, México.

1991
Otro recuento de poemas (1950-1991), de Jaime Sabines, Joaquín Mortiz, México.

1994
El espíritu de don Juan. Una introducción a la obra de Carlos Castaneda, de Joaquín Castillo y Richard Dixey, Grijalbo, México.

1995
Retrato crítico, de Alí Chumacero, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México.

1996
• Diálogo del hombre, de Raúl Horta, Comisión Nacional de Derechos Humanos, México.

1997
Humanismo en el nuevo mundo: ensayo histórico y perspectivas contemporáneas, de Raúl Horta, Porrúa, México.

1998
Recuento de poemas 1950-1993, de Jaime Sabines, Joaquín Mortiz, México, 1997; edición de bolsillo.

1999
La herencia, de Jorge  G. Castañeda, Alfaguara, México.

1999
• ¿Hombre o hambre? Caminos para la supervivencia, de Raúl Horta, Ediciones Central de Relaciones Públicas, S.A. de C.V., México.

2000
El árbol de la cultura iberoamericana, de Raúl Horta, Edamex, México.

2000
La herencia, de Jorge G. Castañeda, Punto de Lectura, México.

2000
• Paisaje nocturno, de Miguel Ángel Muñoz, Praxis, México.

2001
El futuro del agua en México, de Manuel Perló Cohen, Banobras y Artes Gráficas Panorama S.A. de C.V., México.

2005
El origen de la niebla, de Miguel Ángel Muñoz, Fondo Editorial Tierra Adentro, México.

2006
Exutorio. Poesía reunida 1964-2003, de Guillermo Fernández, Fondo de Cultura Económica, México.

2008
Recuento de poemas 1950-1993, de Jaime Sabines, Booket, México.

2013
Linaje de brujos, de José N. Iturriaga, Grijalbo, México.

Premios y reconocimientos

1918-2011

1964

• Premio de adquisición “Moinho Santista", máximo galardón de la Bienal de Sao Paulo.

1967

• Premio “Raúl Baillers", México.

1993

• Es nombrado Artista Emérito por el Fondo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes (FONCA), México.

2008

• A los 90 años de vida, en 2008 recibe la Medalla de Oro del Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes, la Medalla del Distrito Federal, el Pergamino y el nombramiento de Ciudadano Distinguido del D.F., por parte del Gobierno de la Ciudad de México. En este mismo acto se anuncia la creación del Centro Cultural Ricardo Martínez en el Centro Histórico de la Ciudad.

2009
• El gobierno de la Ciudad de México, propone crear el Centro Cultural Ricardo Martínez, en el inmueble ubicado en Av. Juárez No. 58, en el Centro Histórico, en lo que era el cine Variedades, sin embargo no se concretó.

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Ricardo Martínez

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